TRANSFORMATION: A MEANS OF GENETIC TRANSFER

It happens in bacteria and a few species in a pure way. Transformation can also be caused be artificial means. Bacteria that bear the potential of getting transformation either by their own or by artificial methods are termed as capable. Genetic material can be traded between two bacterial cells by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from 1 cell to the other through intimate contact. Introduction of this foreign DNA into the eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Transduction can also be used as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA into a non-bacterial mobile that might be either a plant cell or a animal cell.

Transformation was initially demonstrated through an British bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who had been searching for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. Transgender Biohacking discovered a benign strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be made virulent if subjected to the warmth killed virulent strains. He guessed that there’s some shifting variable gift that has the capacity for making the harmless and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. They isolated the DNA in the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the help of this genetic material they could create the benign non-virulent strain. They predicted this uptake and incorporation of DNA from the germs as transforamation. Transformation did not become the regular procedure until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully altered Escherichia coli by treating the bacteria with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and convenient procedure that became a milestone in the business of biotechnology and research.

Transformation by using electroporation was designed in the late 1980s once the efficacy and the number of bacterial cells can be raised through conversion. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium named as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was discovered which was in charge of causing tumors in the plants and the tumor causing agent was discovered to be DNA plasmid known as Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation may be predicted as a secure genetic change caused by uptake of foreign DNA and competence might be defined as the condition of being able to choose the exogenous DNA from the environment. Competence could be artificial or natural. About 1 percent of the bacterial population is able to take the DNA naturally under the laboratory conditions and many more species have been known to take up the foreign DNA within their normal surroundings. These bacteria carry a set of genes that supply the protein machinery to bring the DNA across the cell membrane. The transfer of genetic material between two distinct strains of bacteria is known as as horizontal gene transfer.